Not necessarily - unlocking generally refers to the phone being unlocked from the original carrier network to allow you to switch carrier to another provider.
International unlocking - services internationally differ than the United States. Most international carriers run off the GSM software technology.
CDMA is a software only used in the States - Sprint and Verizon use this technology.
Whether your device is locked or unlocked, you should check with your carrier before you travel to see if your device will work on international services. Service providers change from country to country so even if you have an unlocked phone, it still may not work on international services. A GSM device is more likely to work internationally than a CDMA device.
If your device has the SIM slot, you could also buy a "SIM" card with a phone number in the country you are visiting. This could be a very beneficial tool to your trip. Simply plug in your international SIM when you travel and when you get back to the states, plug back in your US SIM. You may want to check with your carrier to see if they offer any type of international SIM's.
Click here to see a WhistleOut Guide to Global and Travel SIM Cards
Click here to see a WhistleOut Guide on Unlocking your device